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British and Sikhs General Knowledge

▬ Garu Nanak (First Guru) is the credit for the establishment of Sikh sect. Only followers of Guru Nanak were called Sikhs. These emperors were contemporaries of Babur and Humayun.

▬ On the Kartik Purnima of 1496 AD, Nanak felt the spiritual revival.

▬ Guru Nanak established a free interactive restaurant called Guru Ka Langar.

▬ Guru Nanak established Sangat (Dharamshala) and Pangat (Langar) in many places.

▬ Sangat and Pangat worked as an institution for the followers of Guru Nanak where they met every day.

▬ Guru Nanak died in Kartarpur in 1539 AD.

▬ Guru Angad (1539–52 AD) was the second Guru of the Sikhs. His initial name was Lehna.

▬ They made the anchor system started by Nanak permanent.

▬ Gurmukhi script was started by Guru Angad.

▬ The third Guru of the Sikhs was Amardas (1552–74 AD).

▬ Guru Amardas did many things that were separate from the Hindus. Marriage method was different from that of Hindus.

▬ Akbar went to Govindwal meeting Guru Amardas and donated many villages to Guru-daughter Bibi Bhani.

▬ Amardas established 22 padis and appointed one mahant on each.

▬ Bibi’s husband Ramdas (1574-81 AD) became the fourth Guru of the Sikhs. Akbar gave 500 bighas of land to Bibi Bhani. Guru Ramdas dug a reservoir called Amritsar on this land and established the city of Amritsar. Guru Ramdas entrusted the position of Guru to his third son Arjuna. In this way, they made the Guru-pada ancestral.

▬ Guru Arjuna (AD 1581-1605) became the fifth Guru of the Sikhs. He wrote Adigranth, the religious text of the scriptures. It contains inspiring prayers and songs of Guru Nanak.

▬ Guru Arjun built Harmandar Sahab in the middle of the Amritsar reservoir.

▬ Jahangir killed Guru Arjuna in 1606 due to assisting Prince Khusrau.

▬ The sixth Guru of the Sikhs was Hargovind (1606–1645 AD). He gave the Sikhs the form of a military organization and built the Akal Takht or the throne of God.

▬ These two swords used to sit on the throne and made arrangements to play the drum in the court.

▬ He built the fortifications of Amritsar.

▬ The seventh Guru of the Sikhs was Hararai (1645–61 AD). He blessed Darashikoh on coming.

▬ The eighth Garuda Harkishan (1661–64 AD) of the Sikhs took place. He died of smallpox. He had to go to Delhi and explain about Gurupad to Aurangzeb.

▬ The ninth Guru of the Sikhs was Tegbahadur (1664-75 AD). Due to not accepting Islam, Aurangzeb got them killed near the gurdwara in present-day Shishganj.

▬ The tenth and last Guru of the Sikhs was Guru Gobind Singh (1675–1708 AD). He was born in 1666 AD in Patna.

▬ Guru Gobind Singh called himself the true king. He made five ‘kakaras’ compulsory for the Sikhs, meaning that each Sikh was allowed to have hair, comb, saber, briefs and kadha and asked all people to add the word ‘Singh’ to the end of their name.

▬ The residence of Guru Gobind Singh was Anandpur Sahib and work place was Paota.

▬ His two sons, Fatah Singh and Zorawar Singh, were put to the wall by the Mughal Faujdar Wazir Khan of Sirhind.

▬ Guru Gobind Singh founded the Khalsa Panth on the day of Baisakhi in 1699 AD.

▬ Pahul system was started by Guru Gobind Singh.

▬ Guru Gobind Singh gave the present form of Sikh religious text Adigranth and said that now ‘Guruvani’ will act as the Guru of Sikh sect.

▬ Garugovind Singh was murdered by a Pathan named Gul Khan at a place called Naded in 1708 AD.

▬ Banda Bahadur: He was born in 1670 in Rajauli village of Poonch district. His childhood name was Lakshmandas. His father Ramdev Bhardwaj was a Rajput.

▬ The objective of Banda was to establish a Sikh state in Punjab. For this, he made Lohgarh the capital. He got coins named Guru Nanak and Guru Govind Singh.

▬ Banda killed the Mughal Faujdar Wazir Khan of Sirhind.

▬ On the orders of Mughal emperor Farrukhsiyar, in 1716, Vanda Singh was captured and put to death at a place called Gurudaspur Nangar.

▬ Shahdara is known as Kallagadhi where thousands of Mughal soldiers were killed by Banda.

▬ After the death of Banda, the Sikhs were divided into many small pieces. In 1748, on the initiative of Nawab Karpoor Singh, a group of all Sikh troops merged into Khalsa.

▬ Dal Khalsa was placed under the leadership of Jasma Singh Ahluwalia, which was later divided into twelve parties. It was called Missal.

▬ Misal is an Arabic word, which means ‘same’.

▬ Ranjit Singh: Ranjit Singh was born on 2 November 1780 in Gujranwala, under Mahasingh, the head of Sukrachakia Missal. His grandfather Charat Singh gave Sukrachakia Missal a prominent place among the 12 misals.

▬ In 1798-99 AD Ranjit Singh became the ruler of Lahore. The Treaty of Amritsar was signed between Charles Metcalf and Maharaja Ranjit Singh on 25 April 1809.

▬ Ranjit Singh’s kingdom was divided into four lists – Peshawar, Kashmir, Multan and Lahore.

▬ Maharaja Ranjit Singh had Foreign Minister Fakir Azizuddin and Finance Minister Dinanath.

▬ Ranjit Singh died on 7 June 1839.

▬ First Anglo-Sikh War took place in 1845-46 AD and Second Anglo Sikh War in 1849 AD.

▬ Treaty between British and Sikhs:

(i) Treaty of Lahore: March 9, 1846 AD.

(ii) Treaty of Bhaironwal: 22 December 1846 AD. Under this treaty, the migration of the British Army into the protection of King Dalip Singh was accepted in Punjab.

▬ On August 20, 1847, Queen Jida was separated from Raja Dalip Singh and sent to Sheikhpura with an annual pension of Rs 48,000.

▬ During the Second Anglo-Sikh War, the first battle was fought between Sikh leader Sher Singh and British commander Gough. The second battle was fought by the British on February 21, 1819, under the leadership of Charles Napier, on the banks of the Chenab river in Gujarat. The Sikhs were badly defeated in this war.

▬ The whole of Punjab was merged into the English state by Lord Dalhousie’s declaration of March 29, 1849. Maharaja Dalip Singh was given an annual pension of 50,000 pounds and was sent to England to pursue education. Kohinoor, the famous diamond of the Sikh state, was sent to Queen Victoria.