▬ According to Article 246 of the Indian Constitution, the government has been entrusted with the responsibility of conducting a census of the country. It is inscribed on serial number 69 of the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution.
▬ The census in India started in 1872 AD.
▬ The regular census in India began in 1881, during Lord Ripon’s tenure.
▬ According to the National Population Policy, 2000, the goal is to achieve population stability by the year 2045.
▬ According to Census 2001, the total population of India is 16.7% of the total population of the world, which is 1,02, 87, 37,436 persons with the number of males being 53,22, 23,090 and females being 49,65,14,346.
▬ The annual growth rate in the population has come down from 2-14% to 1.93%.
▬ The number of females per thousand males in India is 933.
▬ The number of literate people in the population has increased from 52.2% to 64.84%.
▬ The largest decrease in population growth has been in Andhra Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh had a population growth rate of 24–2% in the decade of 1981–91, while in the decade of 1991–2001 this growth was only 14.59%.
▬ The density of population in India is 325 persons per sq km.
▬ The state with the highest population density is West Bengal, with a population density of 903 persons per sq km. This is followed by Vihara (881) and Kerala (819).
The state with the lowest population density is Arunachal Pradesh (13 persons per sq km).
▬ Four states with the most population (in descending order) – 1. Uttar Pradesh, 2. Maharashtra, 3. Bihar and 4. West Bengal.
▬ There are four states with the least population (in increasing order) – 1. Sikkim, 2. Mizoram, 3. Arunachal Pradesh and 4. Goa.
▬ There are four states with highest population density (in descending order).
1. P.Bangal, 2.Bihar, 3.Kerala and 4.Uttar Pradesh.
Four states with highest literacy (in descending order)
1. Kerala (90-90%). 2. Mizoram (88–89), 3. Goa (82%) and 4. Maharashtra (76.9%)
▬ Kerala is the only state to be declared fully literate in the country so far.
▬ The lowest literacy state is Bihar (47%). It is the lowest in the country in literacy for both men and women. [Male literacy 59.7% female literacy 33.1%]
▬ Arunachal Pradesh is the lowest literacy state in male and female literacy after Bihar, while Jharkhand is the lowest literacy state after female in Bihar.
▬ States with highest sex ratio (females. Per 1000 males) are (in descending order) Kerala (1058), Chhattisgarh (989), Tamil Nadu (987), Manipur (978) and Andhra Pradesh (978). The state with the lowest sex ratio is Haryana (861).
▬ 27 Cities of 27-78% of the total population of India live in cities.
▬ The four most urban populated states of India are (in descending order)
Goa (49.8%), Mizoram (496%), Tamil Nadu (44%) and Maharashtra (42-40%)
▬ Four most populous cities (in descending order) Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi and Chennai.
▬ The state with the least urban population is Himachal Pradesh (9.8%). (91.2% of rural population)
▬ Union Territory of Delhi with highest urban population (93.2%).
▬ Sikkim is the smallest state in terms of population.
▬ Lakshadweep is the smallest union territory in terms of population.
▬ The most populous union territory is Delhi (1,38,50,507).
▬ Union Territory of Puducherry (1001) with highest sex ratio.
▬ Union Territory with highest literacy is Lakshadweep (86.7%).
▬ The lowest literacy union territory is Dadra and Nagar Haveli (57.6%).
▬ The union territory with the highest and lowest population density is Delhi (9294) and Andaman and Nicobar Islands (43) respectively.