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Coding Decoding Reasoning

Coding is a method in which one type of instructions information is secretly exchanged, i.e. one person sends a dialogue to another person, the other receives it, only the coder decoder can know about it. Other person do not know anything about the information sent, that is, there is no definite rule. In such methods, a code is encoded, others have to decode it on this basis of same rule. For such questions, you have to remember the number of all English letters and their opposite number.
These Questions contains a few words / letters / numbers that do not display their reality but display something else. It is made up of certain rules, you have to check the law and use the same language.

Coding: Coding is the method of making any meaningful word change in meaningless words / letters / digits according to a particular rule.

Decoding: Decoding is the method of making  a meaningful word from a meaningless word by certain rules.

(A) Remember the serial number of all the letters of the English alphabet. The systematic order from A to Z is called the English alphabet. There are 26 letters in the English alphabet. In which the values of the letters are different

A – 1

B – 2

C – 3

D – 4

E – 5

F – 6

G – 7

H – 8

I – 9

J – 10

K – 11

L – 12

M – 13

N – 14

O – 15

P – 16

Q – 17

R – 18

S – 19

T – 20

U – 21

V – 22

W – 23

X – 24

Y – 25

Z – 26

With the help of the word ‘EJOTY‘ the value of the letters of the entire English alphabet can be remembered. The letters of the word ‘EJOTY’ are numbered according to the alphabet in the English alphabet.
Y – 25

Example 1: What is the 22nd letter from your left in the English alphabet?
Solution: Since we know that about EJOTY
T = 20
22 -> T + 2 = V

(B) When solving sign language questions, the letter needs to be opposite to each letter, which is considered necessary to remember the Opposite letters.

A – Z

B – Y

C – X

D – W

E – V

H – 8

F – U

G – T

H – S

I – R

J – Q

K – P

L – O

M – N

Unlike each letter in the English alphabet, the letter can be known by the Addition Method.
If there are two letters in the English alphabet having the sum of 27, then the two letters will be mutually opposite to each other.
Eg: A = 1, Z = 26
A + Z = 1 + 26 = 27
Thus A and Z are the opposite letters of each other.

Example 1. What will be the opposite letter of letter S in the English alphabet?
Solution: S = 19
27 = 19 + 8
8 = H therefore the letter -> H

Unlike each letter in the English alphabet, the letter can be known by the subtraction method.
After subtraction of the value of any letter in the English alphabet from ’27 ‘, the remaining letter remains the opposite letter of the lowercase letter.

Example 2. What would be the opposite letters of the English alphabet P and N?
Solution: P = 16. The opposite letter of P = 27 – 16 = 11 -> K
Similarly, the opposite letter N = 14: N = 27 – 14 = 13 -> M

Type 1

Alphabetical coding:

Understand the pattern of the question based on the sign . Depending on the questions asked in the exam, there may be following patterns.

Form I: Characters given in the sign proceed from their location (Forward Sequence Pattern)

Example: In an indicative language, HAND is called IBOE, then what will SILK be called?
Solution: In TJML, I for H, B for A, O for N, E for D, i.e. each letter has moved one place from its position. Hence TJML will be for SILK.

Form II: The letters in the sign can be reversed from their location (Backward Sequence Pattern)

Example: In a sign language if WRITE is called VOHSD, what will MIGHT be called?
Solution: (LHFGS), In this question, the letter of the sign is the letter behind its position, V for W,  O for R, H for I, S for T, D for E, similar in the question word Will be written by the letters behind it.

Form III: swipe with Two or more than two positions from its position (Skipped Sequence Pattern)

Example 1. In a sign language if CHAIR is written EJCKT, how will LIGHT be written in the same sign language?
Solution: NKlJV
The letter of the word is given in the sign of this question is moving forward, E for C (D is omitted), J for the H (I is omitted). NKIJV will be the answer after following the same rule .

Form IV: By Changing Places

Example 1. In a sign language if the MOTHERS is written in SREHTOM, how will BROUGHT be written in the same sign language?
Solution: THGUORB
The characters in the given code are written in reverse order.

Examples 2. In a sign language if written to BREAKTHROUGH RBAETKRHUOHG, how would the DISTRIBUTION be written in the same sign language?
Each of the two letters has been changed with the letters given in it.

Form V: By the opposite letter of the words used in the word (By Opposite Letter of the Letters Used in the Word)

Example 2. In a sign language, if KING is written PRMT, how will RAIN be written?
Solution: IZRM
Each letter is coded as the letter of the opposite sequence. Like A = Z, B = Y, C = X, D = W, M = N etc.

Form VI: Coding by Analogy

Example : in a sign language, if BLADE will be written as SPTFA, then what will be the code of BALE on that basis?

Solution: STPA
In the given question, any of the above patterns have not been followed. The codes given in the word of Question are the codes for the given word.

Type 2

Number coding:

In Such questions codes for the letters are given in the form of numbers. These numbers may or may not be affiliated in alphabetical order of letters.

Form I: Letters are denoted by digits (letters of Word are denoted by Digits)
Example 1. In a sign language if CHAIR is written 53269 and EAR is written as 729, then how will HEAR be written?

Solution: 3729

In this type of question, make sure to check the code is the same or not for common characters. like the codes for A and R are 2 and 9 in both words.

Example 2. If RIPSLE is written as 613082 and WIFE to 4192, how would PEWSL be written in the same way?

Solution: 32408

Form II: using the mathematical operations by using any arithmetic method

Example 1. If CAT is written as 24 and SAD as 24, what will be the SHE?
Solution: CAT -> 3 + 1 + 20 = 24
SAD -> 19 + 1 + 4 = 24
SHE -> 19 + 8 + 5 = 32

Example 2. If DEEP is written as 60 and RABIT as 100, then how would HAIR be written?
Solution: DEEP -> 4 + 5 + 5 + 16 = 30 -> 30 × 2 = 60
RABIT -> 18 + 1 + 2 + 9 + 20 = 50 -> 50 × 2 = 100
So HAIR -> 8 + 1 + 9 + 18 = 36 -> 36 × 2 = 72

Example 3: If 123 is written as 36 and 225 is 81, then how will 331 be written as ?
Solution: 123 -> 1 + 2 + 3 = 6 -> 62 = 36
225 -> 2 + 2 + 5 = 9 -> 92 = 81
So 331 -> 3 + 3 + 1 = 7 -> 72 = 49

Type 3

Word Coding OR Word Substitution:

In this type of question, another word is used as a sign instead of one word.
Example 1. If the cloud is called ‘white’, ‘white’ is ‘wind’, ‘air’ is ‘blue’, ‘blue’ is water, water is power, Then where the bird will fly?
Solution: Blue
Usually, the birds fly in the air and the air is called blue. So the answer will be blue.

Type 4

Mixed Coding

A sentence is indicated from one sentence of three or four words to another, and there are three or four such sentences, and a single word is asked.
Example 1: In any sign language ‘NEE TIN FU’  means ‘HOW ARE YOU’ and ‘NEE TIN SE’ means WHERE ARE YOU, what will be the code for ‘WHERE’?
Solution: In this kind of questions, the indications of common words in the given sentances are seen first.
Such as – nee tin fu – how are you
nee tin se-where are you
In both of these sentences ‘nee’ and ‘tin’ and ‘are’ and ‘you’ are in common, in the second sentence ‘where’ and ‘se’ in the code sentence is being saved, so the code of ‘where’ will be ‘se’.

Type 5

Symbol Coding

Such codes are encoded as symbols.
Example 1. In a particular code, write SOLE to $54# and DIME to 3%7#. How MODES will be written in that code?
(a) 75#3S (b) 753#$ (c) 753%$ (d) 75%3S (e) None of these
Solution: (b) The way,
S – $
O – 5
L – 4
E – #
D – 3
I – #
M – 7
E – #
Similarly, (together with both words MODES was created)
M – 7
O – 5
D – 3
E – #
S – $

Type 6

Rearrangement Coding:

Different words given under such questions are rearranged in different order.

Example 1: In a special code, ‘in what way is it justifiable to Sacrifice an animal’ is written as ‘way an it to justifiable in the sacrifice is what animal’. How would “it fell on the able shoulders of Sankara to clear” in that code?
(a) to an able of it shoulders Sankara the fell clear
(b) on to able of shoulders it Sankara the fell clear
(c) on to of able shoulders it Sankara fell the clear
(d) On to able of shoulders it Sankara fell the clear
(e) None of the above
Solution: (b) The way,
In what way is it justified to sacrifice an animal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

=> Way an it to justify in Sacrifice is what animal 3 9 5 7 6 1 8 4 2 10

Similarly, -> it fell on the shoulder of Sankara to clear 1 2 3 4. 5 6 7 8 9 10
on to able of shoulders sankara the fall clear 3 9 5 7 6 1 8 4 2 10

Type 7

Condition Based Coding:

under such questions There are different numbers /letters/symbols given below the group/number of different characters under which some conditions are also given, which apply differently in the given questions.
=> Instructions Below are a group of letters in each question and followed by four groups of points (A), (B), (C) and (D). Based on the given number code and the below-given conditions, you have to find out which group of digits represents the group of letters and answer it accordingly. If any group of digits does not represent the letter given in the question, give the answer (E) that means none of them.
Letter P A J L M E R U K.
Number code 2 5 8 6 1 3 9 4 7
(i) If the first letter is the consonant and the last letter is a vowel, then both will be coded as *.
(ii) If the first letter is the vowel and the last letter is consonant, both will be coded as $.

Example 1: R K P J A
(A) $7268
(B) ★7268★
(c) *2768★
(d) 972685
(e) None of these
Solution: (b) R K P I J A  -> ★7268★

Example 2: M JK P R K
(a) 187279
(b) 178297
(c) 287179
(d) ★8729★
(e) None of these
Solution: (e) MJKPRK – 1 8 7 7 9 7