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Conditional Sentences

♦   जब एक कार्य होना दूसरे पर निर्भर करे तब वाक्य conditional sentence कहलाता है |
जैसे: आप सफल होंगे बशर्ते आप मेहनत करें तो|
You will succeed provided you work hard.

♦   ऊपर दिए गए वाक्य में सफल होना कड़ी मेहनत पर निर्भर कर रहा है



♦   Conditional Sentences में निचे दिए गए कुछ शर्तसूचक शब्द अवश्य दिखते है |

1. अगर ……………..तो -> If ………………… ,

2. बशर्ते -> provided

3. जैसे ही ……………….वैसे ही ->  as soon as…………….. , ………………….. no sooner…………. than

4. जब ……………….तब -> when …………… ,

5 . जब तक ……………….तब तक ->  Unless……………… , Until………………… ,

Conditional Sentence के दो भाग होते है |
1. If Clause
2. Main Clause

Conditional Sentences मुख्यत: तीन प्रकार के होते है |
A. ‘If clause’ in present tense.
B. ‘If clause’ in past tense.
C. ‘If clause’ in past perfect tense.
D. Other types of conditional sentences.

A. ‘If Clause’ in Present Tense

General Formula— If + Simple Present, Simple Future

ऐसे Conditional Sentences में ‘If Clause’ Simple Present में होता है और ‘Main Clause’ simple future में होता है |

अगर मै दिल्ली आऊंगा तो आपसे मिलूंगा |
If I will come to Delhi, I will meet you – (×)

If I come to Delhi, I will meet you. (✓)

♦   अगर दो कार्य भविष्य में एक के बाद एक हो और दूसरे कार्य का होना पहले कार्य के होने पर निर्भर करे तो पहला कार्य Simple Present Tense में होगा और दूसरा Simple Future Tense में |

निचे दिए कुछ उदाहरण देखें –
1. She will come to meet you as soon as you will reach Delhi. (×)
She will come to meet you as soon as you reach Delhi. (✓)

2. If the government will become strict, corruption will surely finish. (×)
If the government becomes strict, corruption will surely finish. (✓)

3. I will help him provided he will mend his ways. (×)
I will help him provided he mends his ways. (✓)

4. Unless he will not take care of his health, he will not recover. (×)
Unless he takes care of his health, he will not recover. (✓)

5. There will be rush at the platform when the train will arrive. (×)
There will be rush at the platform when the train arrives. (✓)

♦   उपरोक्त वाक्यों में If वाले भाग में will/shall/would का प्रयोग न करें |

नोट: निचे दिए गए शब्द देखें , इनके तुरंत बाद sub + will / shall का प्रयोग नहीं होना चाहिए |
If, as soon as, provided, before, after, until, unless, in case, when, lest.
(i) Unless or until के साथ not का भी प्रयोग नहीं होता |
(ii) Conditional Sentences में when के बाद will/shall का प्रयोग नहीं होगा |

♦   लेकिन अगर वाक्य पूर्णत: वर्तमान का हो तो ‘Main Clause’ Simple Present में भी हो सकता है |

(i) If it rains, the schools remain closed.

♦   अगर वाक्य सम्भावना का हो तो ‘will’ के स्थान पर may/might का प्रयोग होगा |

(i) If it rains, the students may not come for class.

(ii) If the fog remains, the plane may get late.

♦   अगर वाक्य अनुमति का हो तो ‘will’ के स्थान पर ‘May’ का प्रयोग हो सकता है |

जैसे: (i) If you finish your work, you may go home.

♦    अगर वाक्य में सलाह/ उपदेश हो तो ‘will’ के स्थान पर should/must का प्रयोग करें |

जैसे (i) If you want to remain healthy, you should exercise daily.
(ii) If you do not know him, you must not open the door.

♦   अगर वाक्य शिष्टाचार सम्बंधित निवेदन का हो तो could, may इत्यादि का जरूरतानुसार प्रयोग करें |
जैसे: (i) If you meet him, could you tell him to call me up?
(ii) If you come to Delhi, would you come to meet me?

♦   ‘If’ clause में simple present tense के स्थान पर present continuous tense भी आ सकता है |
जैसे: (i) If you are waiting for the bus, you should better take a taxi.

(ii) If you are not reading the newspaper, you should let others read it.

♦    ‘If’ Clause में Present perfect tense का भी प्रयोग हो सकता है |
1. If you have finished the work, you may leave.
2. If they have bought tickets, they will surely go to see the movie.

Past Conditional

B. ‘If’ Clause in Past Tense

General Formula— If + Simple Past, Subject + would+ V1

जैसे: If I had money, I would lend it to you.

♦   ऐसे वाक्य ‘improbability’ व्यक्त करते है यानि ‘If clause’ में जिस कार्य का उल्लेख है वह नहीं हुआ |

♦   उपरोक्त वाक्य में If I had money से ये स्पष्ट है की पैसे नहीं है |

C. ‘If’ Clause in Past Perfect Tense

General Formula— If + Past Perfect, Sub + would + have + V3

जैसे: If I had seen you, I would have stopped my car.

ऐसे वाक्य में ‘If clause’ में जिस कार्य का उल्लेख होता है उस कार्य का न होना दर्शाया जाता है | यानि ‘If I had seen you’ से तात्पर्य है की ‘I had not seen you.’ ऐसे वाक्यों में ‘If’ को ‘had’ से replace किया जा सकता है | तब Formula होगा

Had + Subject + V + obj, Subject + would + have + V

जैसे: Had I seen you, I would have stopped my car.

Three Important Formula

• If + Present Indefinite,          Simple Future

• If + S + had + V3,                  S + would + have + V3

• If + S + V2,                           S + would + V1

D. Other Types of Conditional Sentences

(i) काल्पनिक पद

General Formula— If + subject + were, subject + would + V1

जैसे: If I were a bird, I would fly in the sky.

काल्पनिक पद (Post) के लिए सभी subjects के साथ ‘were’ का प्रयोग किया जाता है |

निचे दिए गए शब्दों के साथ ‘was’ का प्रयोग नहीं होता |

If, as though, in case, as if, would that एवं I wish.

Ex. He scolded me as if he was my father. (×)
He scolded me as if he were my father.(✓)

(ii) ‘If’ Clause में हम ‘Unless’ so long, as soon as, when, provided, suppose, in case, but, for इत्यादि का भी प्रयोग कर सकते है |

जैसे: (1) Unless you work hard, you will not pass.

नोट: Unless के साथ ‘not’ का प्रयोग नहीं होता | Unless you work hard से हमारा तात्पर्य है ‘If you do not work hard. ‘यानि ‘Unless + affirmative = If + negative.
2. I shall support him so long I am alive.
3. As soon as the train comes, there will be rush for seats.
4. When he comes to Delhi, I will go to meet him.







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