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Independent Provincial State


▬ Jaunpur was founded by Ferozeshah Tughlaq in memory of his brother Jauna Khan.

▬ The independent Sharki dynasty in Jaunpur was founded by Malik Sarwar (Khwaja Jahan).

▬ The title of Malik-us-Sharq (former lord) was given to Khwaja Jahan in 1394 AD by Sultan Mahmud, son of Ferozeshah Tughlaq.

▬ The other major rulers of Jaunpur were: Mubarak Shah (1399–1402 AD), Shamsuddin Ibrahimshah (1402–1436 AD), Mahmud Shah (1436–51 AD) and Husain Shah (1458–1500 AD).

▬ After being independent for nearly 75 years, Jahalpur was captured by Bahlol Lodi.

▬ Jaunpur came to be known as Siraj of India due to the development in the field of literature and architecture in Jaunpur under Sharki Shashan, especially during the time of Ibrahimshah.

▬ Ataladevi’s mosque was built in 1408 AD by Sharqi Sultan Ibrahim Shah.

▬ The Atala Devi Mosque was built by demolishing the temple of Atala Devi, built by King Vijaychandra of Kannauj.

▬ Jami Masjid was built in 1470 AD by Husain Shah Sharqi.

▬ Jhanjhari Mosque was built in 1430 AD by Ibrahim Sharki Kadwara and Lal Darwaza Mosque by Muhammad Shah in 1450 AD.


▬ A Hindu named Suhadeva established a Hindu state in Kashmir in 1301 AD.

▬ The first Muslim dynasty was founded by Shahmir in Kashmir in 1339-40 AD.

▬ The first Muslim ruler of Kashmir was Shahmir, who ascended the throne in the name of Shamsuddin Shah Mir.

▬ It established its capital at Indrakot.

▬ Alauddin removed from the capital Indrakot and established it at Alauddinpur (Srinagar).

▬ Sultan Sikandar was called Butashikan due to breaking of Hindu temples and idols.

▬ In 1420 AD, Jain ul-Abedin ascended the throne. Due to its religious tolerance, it was called ‘Akbar of Kashmir’.

▬ Jain-Oul Abedin was a master of Persian, Sanskrit, Kashmiri, Tibetan etc. languages. It got Mahabharata and Rajatarangini translated into Persian.

▬ In 1588 AD, Akbar annexed Kashmir into the Mughal Empire.


▬ Ikhtiaruddin Muhammad bin Bakhtiar Khilji annexed Bengal into the Delhi Sultanate.

▬ Gayaasuddin Tughlaq divided Bengal into three parts – Lakhanauti (North Bengal), Sonar Village (East Bengal) and Satgaon (South Bengal).

▬ In 1345 AD, Haji Ilyas ended the partition of Bengal and became the ruler of Bengal in the name of Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah.

▬ Adina Mosque in Pandua was built by Sultan Sikandar Shah in 1364 AD.

▬ The ruler of Bengal, Gayauddin Azam Shah (1389–1409 AD) was famous for his justice.

▬ Alauddin Hussain Shah (1493-1518 AD) shifted the capital from Pandua to Gaur.

▬ Mahaprabhu Chaitanya was a contemporary of Alauddin. Alauddin started a movement called Satyapir.

▬ Malathar Basu created the title of Gunaraj Khan, during the reign of Alauddin, who composed Shri Krishna Vijay. His son was given the title of Satvaraj Khan.

▬ Nasiruddin Nusrat Shah built Barasona and Kadam Rasool Mosque in Gaur.


▬ Dilawar Khan declared Malwa independent in 1401 AD.

▬ Alape Khan, son of Dilawar, became the ruler of Malwa in 1405 AD after assuming the title of Hashang Shah. It shifted its capital from Mandu to Mandu.

▬ Mahmud Shah founded the Khilji dynasty in Malwa.

▬ Bahadur Shah, the ruler of Gujarat, defeated Mahmud Shah-II in battle and killed him and annexed Malwa into Gujarat.

▬ The fort of Mandu was built by Hashang Shah. The most important in this fort is Delhi-Darwaza.

▬ The palace of Bajbahadur and Roopmati was built by Sultan Nasiruddin Shah.

▬ Hindola Bhavan or Durbar Hall was built by Hushang Shah.

▬ Jahamahal was built by Gaya Suddin Khilji in Mandu.

▬ Kushkamahal was built by Mahmud Khilji at a place called Fatehabad.


▬ Alauddin merged it with Delhi-Sultanate in 1297 AD after defeating Rajkarna, the ruler of Gujarat.

▬ Subedar of Gujarat appointed by Muhammad Shah Tughlaq in 1391 AD Zafar Khan assumed the title of ‘Sultan Jaffarshah’ and became independent Sultan of Gujarat in 1407 AD.

▬ The principal rulers of Gujarat were: Ahmad Shah (1411–52), Mahmud Shah Begda (1458–1511 AD) and Bahadur Shah (1526–1537 AD).

▬ Ahmad Shah established a city called Ahmedabad near the Sabarmati river near Asawal and removed the capital from Patan to make Ahmedabad the capital.

▬ The most famous ruler of Gujarat was Mahmud Begada.

▬ Mahmud Begada established a city called Mustafabad near Girnar and Muhammadabad near Chammaner.

▬ In 1572 AD, Akbar annexed Gujarat into the Mughal Empire.


▬ Alauddin Khilji defeated Ratnasinh, ruler of the Guhilaut dynasty of Mewar in 1303 AD and annexed Mewar to the Delhi Sultanate.

▬ Hammirdev of Sisodia dynasty, a branch of the Guhilaut dynasty, defeated Muhammad Tughlaq and liberated the whole of Mewar.

▬ Rana Kumma established a Victory Pillar at Chittor in 1448 AD.

▬ Khanwa’s war took place between Rana Sanga and Babur in 1527, in which Babur emerged victorious.

▬ The battle of Haldighati was fought between Rana Pratap and Akbar in 1576 AD, in which Akbar emerged victorious.

▬ The capital of Mewar was Chittorgarh. Jahangir annexed Mewar into the Mughal Empire.


▬ At the time of the decline of the Tughlaq dynasty, Malik Ahmed Raja Farooqi, the Subedar of Ferozeshah Tughlaq, established the Khan country in 1382 AD between the rivers Narmada and Tapti.

▬ The capital of Khan country was Burhanpur. Its military headquarters was Asirgarh.

▬ In 1601 AD, Akbar annexed Khandesh into the Mughal Empire.