▬ The Council of Ministers was called Vizrat.
▬ During the reign of Babur, the post of Wazir was quite important.
▬ After the emperor, the most important officer to carry out the functions of governance was the lawyer. Whose duties were divided by Akbar into Diwan, Mirabakhshi, Sadr-us-Sadr and Mir Saman.
▬ During the time of Aurangzeb, Asad Khan served as the Diwan for the most 31 years.
▬ Only after signing a letter named ‘Sarkhat’ by Mirbakhshi, the army could get salary every month.
▬ Whenever Sadra served as the head of the Department of Justice, he was called Qazi.
▬ Sadr used to inspect the landless land (Madad-e-Masha).
▬ The head of the domestic departments of the emperor was called Mir Sami.
Chief officer and work of Mughal era
Establish peace in provinces (head of province executive)
Head of provincial revenue (directly accountable to the royal diwan)
Provincial military head
Principal Army Officer of the district
Amil or Amalgujar
Chief Revenue Officer of the district
Chief officer of pargana
Making direct connections with village farmers and fixing rents
▬ The head of Information and Intelligence Department was called Daroga-e post post.
▬ To prevent those who act against the Shari’a, the official named Muhatsib used to do the work of protecting the common people from the evil. .
▬ From the point of view of administration, the division of the Mughal Empire was divided into the Subas, the Subas into the Government, the Parganas or Mahals of the Government, the Mahal’s district or Dastur, and the village of Dastur.
▬ The smallest unit of administration was the village, which was called Mavda or Dih. Small settlements were called Nagla under Mavada.
▬ A new unit named Chakla was established between the government and the pargana during the reign of Shah Jahan.
▬ On the basis of division of land, all the land of Mughal Empire was divided into 3 classes.
1. Khalsa land: Directly under the control of the emperor.
2. Jagir land: Land given in lieu of salary.
3. Sapuragal or Madad-e-Masha: The land without rent given in the grant. It was also called milk.
▬ Akbar also used the method followed by Sher Shah for land revenue.
▬ An officer named Karodi was appointed by Akbar in 1573 AD. It had to recover one crore rupees from its territory.
▬ In 1580 AD, Akbar started a new tax system named Dahsala. This system is also called ‘Todarmal Settlement’. Under this system, the land was divided into four parts –
1. Polaj: It used to be cultivated regularly. (Harvest twice a year)
2. Fallow: This land was cultivated at intervals of one or two years.
3. Chachar: It was cultivated at intervals of three to four years.
4. Barren: It was not cultivable land, it was not levied on rent.
▬ In 1570-71 AD Todarmal started a new system of land revenue seizure on Khalsa land. There were two categories of tax assessment, one was called Takhshis and the other was Tehsil.
▬ Aurangzeb adopted the Nask system during his reign and reduced the amount of land revenue to half the yield.
▬ Farmers divided into three classes during the Mughal period
1. Self-cultivation: These farmers used to cultivate the land in the village where they were resident.
2. Pahi Kasht: They used to go to other villages and do agricultural work.
3. Muzarian: He used to do agricultural work by renting land from the farmers himself.
▬ Most of the minting in the Mughal period took place in Aurangzeb’s time.
▬ Ana coin was introduced by Shah Jahan.
▬ Jahangir made his own shape on coins in his time, as well as inscribed his name and Nur Jahan’s name on it.
▬ The biggest coin was Sansab Sona. The most prevalent gold coin was Elaha.
▬ The base of the Mughal economy was the rupee of the Chaundi.
▬ Copper prices were used for daily transactions. Used to cost 40 rupees.
▬ Mughal army was divided into four parts –
(1) infantry, (ii) cavalry, (11) artillery and (iv) elephant army.
▬ Mughalkalan military system was completely based on Mansabdari system. It was started by Akbar.
▬ Mansabdars who received Mansab from 10 to 500, Umra who received Mansab from 500 to 2500 and those who received Mansab from 2500 to above were called Amir-e-Azam.
▬ The caste had knowledge of the salary and prestige of a person, knowledge of the number of horsemen from a riding position.
▬ Jahangir arranged for two hospitals and Singh Aspa in the post of rider. This position was first given to Mahabat Khan.
Arrangements for collection of Mughal revenue
Galla Bakshi: In this, some part of the crop was taken by the government.
Nasak: It was estimated on the basis of standing crop, that it was taken after harvesting. This system was in Bengal.
Seizure: Lagaan was decided on the basis of the crop sown in it, which was taken in cash.