# Profit Loss and Discount Mathematics

Introduction: The purchase price, at which an item is bought is called the cost price of that item.

Selling Price: The price at which an item is sold is called the sale-value of that item.

Profit: If the sale price of an item is higher than its purchasing value, then there is profit.

Loss: If the purchase price of an item is higher than its sales price, then there is a loss.

Profit Percent: Profit Per 100 Rupees is called Percentage profit.

Loss Percent: A loss per 100 rupees is called loss percentage .

Extra Expense: In order to bring the goods to the proper place, the expenditure on the sale of the goods to the seller, on the basis of freight, train rent, porter-hire, rickshaw-hire, shop rent, shop staff salary etc. They have to spend, are all extra expenses. Unless stated in the question, the overhead is included in the purchase price of the object.
Note: Profit or loss is always drawn to the purchasing value of the item.

Discount: The discount given by the seller on the face value of an item is called discount.

Successive Discount: After giving a r1% discount on the face value of an item, the remaining amount of r2% is waived, then after deducting r2%, the remaining amount is r3% Exempt, then r1%, r2% and r3% are called successive discount.

FORMULA:  Example – 1. Manoj bought 20 kg of rice at the rate of 8.50 per kg and 30 kg of rice at the rate of 10.50 per kg. He sold both the rice together at a rate of Rs. 11.50 per Kg. How much money did he get?
Tricky Solution: Purchase-Price = (20 × 8.50 + 30 × 10.50) Rs  = Rs 485
Sales-value = (50 × 11.50) Rs  = 575
Profit = (575 – 485) Rs = 90 Rs. Answer.

Example – 2. A shopkeeper buys 25 kg of apples at a rate of 4 rupees per kg. If it sells 11 kg of apple at Rs 5 per kg and the remaining at 3 rupees per kg, then how much money does it cost?
Tricky Solution: Purchase-Price = (25 × 4) Rs = 100 Rs
Sales-value = (11 × 5 + 14 × 3) Rs = 97
Loss = (100-97) Rs = 3 Rs Answer.  Example-4. A person buys an item for Rs 80, but it marks its value at Rs 120. If he sells it at 40% discount, then what is his profit or loss percentage?
Tricky Solution: Purchase-Price = Rs 80
Sales-value = (60% of 120) Rs = (120 × 60/100 ) Rs = 72
Loss = (80 – 72) rupees = 8 rupees
Loss% = ( 8/80 × 100)% = 10% Answer.

Example – 5. What would be the purchase price of that horse which would have earned a profit of Rs 235 for selling in 1785 Rs.?
Tricky solution: Purchase-price = sales-value – profit
= (1785 – 235) Rs = 1550 Rs. Answer.

Example – 6. A table was sold for Rs. 180 at a loss of Rs. 20. What was the price of that table?
Tricky solution: Purchase-price = sales-value + loss
= (180 + 20) Rs = 200 Rs. Answer

Tricks with Trickily Solved Examples

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