Glorious Revolution : 1688, England
▬ James II was a Roman Catholic. His tactless attempt to secure freedom of worship for Catholics united the Whigs and Tories of the Anglican Church against him.
▬ People tolerated the rule of James II, because they thought that he would be succeeded by his daughter Mary who was a Protestant. But a son was born to James II. The knowledge that James’ policies might be continued by a son to be brought up as a Catholic turned against him many Tories, hitherto loyal to him.
▬ So a few leading men-Whigs as well as Tories – dispatched an invitation to William of Orange, ruler of Holland, to succeed to the English throne and save England form Catholic tyranny.
▬ William accepted the invitation and came to England for his purpose.
▬ James II, throwing the great seal into the Thames, fled to France.
▬ This event is known as Glorious or Bloodless Revolution in England.
▬ Effects : (1) The despotic rule of the Stuarts ended; the supremacy of Parliament was established. (2) The system of requiring estimate and accounts for supplies and, of specific appropriations which is nucleus of modern budgetary system-now became fixed. (3) The Bill of Right (1689): It settled down the problem of succession; it viso laid the provision that no Roman Catholic can wear the Crown. As William II and his wife Mary II (daughter of James II and a Protestant by faith), the joint monarchs accepted the Bill of Rights.
Magna Carta (or The Great Charter), 1215: It was the Charter of liberties hich king John II of England was forced to sign in 1215 at Runnymede. It meant to put a check upon the arbitrary powers of king. The most important Principle that it laid down was that English man should be governed by Kefinite laws and not by the whims or the will of a despotic ruler. Magna Carta was said to be the ‘Foundation-stone of rights and liberties of the English people’.
Habeas Corpus Act, 1679 : This act during the reign of Charles II of England provided that no one was to be imprisoned without a writ or warrant stating the charge against him. It also gave facilities to a prisoner for obtaining either speedy trial or release on bail. The Act safeguarded the personal liberties of the people against arbitrary imprisonment by King’s orders.