Unification of Italy : 1848-70
▬ One of the major features of the history of Europe in 19th century was the struggle for the national unification and independence. Italy & Germany were the two important nations which emerged as united, independent states in the 19th century.
▬ In the early 19th century, Italy was divided into a number of states in which the Kingdom of Sardinia was the most powerful. The struggle for Italian independence and unification was organised by the two famous revolutionaries – Mazzini & Garibaldi. The movement led by them is known as the ‘Young Italy’ movement.
▬ After the the revolution of 1848, Count Cavour, the Prime Minister of Sardinia, took the initiative of uniting Italy under the leadership of Sardinia.
▬ By the year of 1861, the entire states (except Rome) had been united and then Victor Emmanuel II, the king of Sardinia took the title of ‘King of Italy’.
▬ Rome was still outside the kingdom of Italy. It was ruled by the Pope. Italian soldiers liberated the city of Rome in 1870, and in 1871, Rome became the capital of united Italy.